N the control version to focus the item on the condition

N the control version to focus the item on the condition of the respondent’s health. Scores were reversed so that higher scores reflect greater health-related stigma, and summed to calculate the subscale scores. The Cronbach’s alphas for the Stigma social rejection, financial insecurity, internalized shame and social isolation scales in this study were. 91,. 74,. 79 and. 93 respectively. Concern about disclosing order GSK-1605786 health conditions to others was measured using the 11-item Disclosure Concerns scale (DC) developed by Berger[26]. The response scale of the DC was the same as the SSIS. Reliability and validity was supported in HIV patients[26] and Cronbach alpha in this study was. 88. The well-validated and extensively utilized Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) [19,25] was used to measure health-related quality of life. The 36-item survey was constructed for self-administration by people 14 years of age or older. Items are rated on a likert scale and thePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122478 April 21,3 /Stigma in Young Adults with Narcolepsyinstrument consists of 8 scales measuring facets of health-related quality of life: physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, vitality, general health perceptions, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems, and mental health[20]. Scores for the 8 scales were converted into a USA norm-based score, a standardized t score transformation (mean = 50 ?10) that ranged from 0 to 100 with higher scores reflecting perceptions of better health. The Cronbach’s alphas for the SF-36 scales in this study ranged from. 81 to. 92. The well-validated Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ)[27,28] was used to measure sleepiness-related functioning in the young adults with narcolepsy. This 30-item instrument is disease-specific and designed to assess the impact of disorders of excessive Q-VD-OPhMedChemExpress Q-VD-OPh sleepiness on multiple activities of everyday living. Difficulty with functioning is rated on a 5-point Likert scale with 0 = no difficulty to 4 = extreme difficulty. The instrument includes 5 subscales: activity level, vigilance, intimacy and sexual relationships, general productivity, and social outcome. The Cronbach’s alpha for the total FOSQ in this study was. 89. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) [22,23], a well-validated instrument for detecting states of anxiety and depression.The HADS includes 14 items rated on a four point Likert scale. Higher scores reflect greater anxiety or depression. Scores for each subscale (anxiety and depression) can range from 0?1 with normal = (0?), mild = (8?0), moderate = (11?4), severe = (15?1)[29]. The Cronbach’s alphas for the HADS anxiety and depression scales in this study were. 81 and. 85 respectively. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) [24] was used to measure the severity of daytime sleepiness. Respondents rated eight items regarding the likelihood of dozing in sedentary situations on a scale from 0 (never) to 3 (high chance). The Cronbach’s alpha for the ESS in this study was. 90. Nighttime sleep quality was measured by the well-validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)[25]. This 24-item instrument measures subjective sleep quality with a Global Sleep Quality Index (the sum of seven component scores). Higher scores indicate worse sleep quality. A Global Sleep Quality Index greater than 5 indicates poor sleep quality and difficulties with sleep in at least two areas.N the control version to focus the item on the condition of the respondent’s health. Scores were reversed so that higher scores reflect greater health-related stigma, and summed to calculate the subscale scores. The Cronbach’s alphas for the Stigma social rejection, financial insecurity, internalized shame and social isolation scales in this study were. 91,. 74,. 79 and. 93 respectively. Concern about disclosing health conditions to others was measured using the 11-item Disclosure Concerns scale (DC) developed by Berger[26]. The response scale of the DC was the same as the SSIS. Reliability and validity was supported in HIV patients[26] and Cronbach alpha in this study was. 88. The well-validated and extensively utilized Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) [19,25] was used to measure health-related quality of life. The 36-item survey was constructed for self-administration by people 14 years of age or older. Items are rated on a likert scale and thePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122478 April 21,3 /Stigma in Young Adults with Narcolepsyinstrument consists of 8 scales measuring facets of health-related quality of life: physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, vitality, general health perceptions, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems, and mental health[20]. Scores for the 8 scales were converted into a USA norm-based score, a standardized t score transformation (mean = 50 ?10) that ranged from 0 to 100 with higher scores reflecting perceptions of better health. The Cronbach’s alphas for the SF-36 scales in this study ranged from. 81 to. 92. The well-validated Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ)[27,28] was used to measure sleepiness-related functioning in the young adults with narcolepsy. This 30-item instrument is disease-specific and designed to assess the impact of disorders of excessive sleepiness on multiple activities of everyday living. Difficulty with functioning is rated on a 5-point Likert scale with 0 = no difficulty to 4 = extreme difficulty. The instrument includes 5 subscales: activity level, vigilance, intimacy and sexual relationships, general productivity, and social outcome. The Cronbach’s alpha for the total FOSQ in this study was. 89. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) [22,23], a well-validated instrument for detecting states of anxiety and depression.The HADS includes 14 items rated on a four point Likert scale. Higher scores reflect greater anxiety or depression. Scores for each subscale (anxiety and depression) can range from 0?1 with normal = (0?), mild = (8?0), moderate = (11?4), severe = (15?1)[29]. The Cronbach’s alphas for the HADS anxiety and depression scales in this study were. 81 and. 85 respectively. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) [24] was used to measure the severity of daytime sleepiness. Respondents rated eight items regarding the likelihood of dozing in sedentary situations on a scale from 0 (never) to 3 (high chance). The Cronbach’s alpha for the ESS in this study was. 90. Nighttime sleep quality was measured by the well-validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)[25]. This 24-item instrument measures subjective sleep quality with a Global Sleep Quality Index (the sum of seven component scores). Higher scores indicate worse sleep quality. A Global Sleep Quality Index greater than 5 indicates poor sleep quality and difficulties with sleep in at least two areas.