.01 1.43 1.18 1.19 0.93 0.96 1.31 0.0.88 0.96 1.14 0.42 0.67 0.36 1.15 1.06 0.76 0.82 0.72 0.63 0.48 0.57 0.6 0.67 1.05 0.0.53 0.8 0.25 0.16 0.3 0.28 0.34 0.36 0.69 0.56 1.12 0.39 0.29 0.16 0.21 0.3 2.030.28 0.18 0.51 0.32 0.26 0.07 0.4 0.54 0.37 0.28 0.93 0.46 0.49 0.16 0.63 0.37 0.37NOTE. Incidence = no. of each cases 4 population of each age group.

.01 1.43 1.18 1.19 0.93 0.96 1.31 0.0.88 0.96 1.14 0.42 0.67 0.36 1.15 1.06 0.76 0.82 0.72 0.63 0.48 0.57 0.6 0.67 1.05 0.0.53 0.8 0.25 0.16 0.3 0.28 0.34 0.36 0.69 0.56 1.12 0.39 0.29 0.16 0.21 0.3 2.030.28 0.18 0.51 0.32 0.26 0.07 0.4 0.54 0.37 0.28 0.93 0.46 0.49 0.16 0.63 0.37 0.37NOTE. Incidence = no. of each cases 4 population of each age group. All patients registered in the Antiviral Drug Surveillance System (ADSS) were confirmed or suspected to have the infection. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047634.t{patients. ORs increased with disease severity in the multivariate analyses (Table 3). The average age of the outpatients was 19.8 yr (616.9 yr) and the median was 14 yr (range, 0?02 yr). The mean and median ages increased to 51.6 (628.5 yr) and 62 yr (range, 0?96 yr), respectively, for those in the ICU. Compared to those aged 30?9 yr, those 60 yr were significantly more likely to have a severe outcome (ICU; OR, 30.988; 95 CI, 22.594?2.501). The proportion of NHI beneficiaries was 96.68 for outpatients, but this value decreased to 94.77 and 89.12 for general and ICU admissions, respectively. NHI beneficiaries were less likely to experience severe illness than patients in the Medical Aid program (ICU; OR, 0.460; 95 CI, 0.387?.548). Underlying disease was associated with an increased risk of severe outcome. The OR was 1.280 (95 CI, 1.263?.297) for inpatients and 2.065 (95 CI, 1.829?.332) for those admitted to the ICU. Confirmation rates differed by age group in a subset of labconfirmed cases. The majority (75.22 ) of confirmed patients was , 20 yr, and the confirmation rates were high in school-aged individuals, with the highest at 30.24/100 cases for those aged 10?19 yr. Only 3.89 of confirmed cases were elderly ( 60 yr), and their confirmation rate was the lowest at 8.63/100 cases. Analyses restricted to lab-confirmed cases showed similar results, with the ORs of those 60 yr higher than those of the younger groups, but the magnitude of the ORs was reduced compared with ORs in all cases (Table 4).Likelihood of DeathAlthough the incidence and admission rate for influenza A (H1N1) were higher in younger individuals, the proportions of inpatients and those admitted to the ICU among antiviral drug users were higher in the elderly ( 60 yr) (Fig. 2C, 2D) and the mortality rate for those 60 yr was noticeably higher than that in other groups. The death rate significantly differed by the time the prescription was S28463 web filled with 0.01/100 for outpatients and 0.23 and 5.23/100 for admission and ICU, respectively. Because the stage that the drugs were used influenced mortality, we adjusted the ORs for death including the variable for the time of DuvoglustatMedChemExpress Duvoglustat filling the prescription. Compared to those aged 30?9 yr, those 60 yrPLOS ONE | www.plosone.org2009 Novel Influenza in KoreaTable 3. Multivariate factors associated with a severe outcome in relation to a nonsevere outcome among all antiviral drug users.Characteristics Female sex Age (yrs)(Mean, Median) 0? 5? 10?9 20?9 30?9 40?9 50?9 60+ Health benefit, Insurance Region, Province 1 underlying disease{ Lung disease Cardiovascular disease Diabetes mellitus Kidney disease Liver disease Malignancy Immune suppression othersOutpatients No.( ) n = 2709611 1351062 (49.86) (19.8616.9, 14) 386140(14.25) 522150(19.27) 846901(31.26) 296259(10.93) 273967(10.11) 180175(6.65) 107784(3.98) 96235(3.55) 2627703(96.68) 1495874(55.21) n = 713383(26.33) 498284(59.87) 57398(6.90) 55435(6.66) 20996(2.52) 97918(11.76..01 1.43 1.18 1.19 0.93 0.96 1.31 0.0.88 0.96 1.14 0.42 0.67 0.36 1.15 1.06 0.76 0.82 0.72 0.63 0.48 0.57 0.6 0.67 1.05 0.0.53 0.8 0.25 0.16 0.3 0.28 0.34 0.36 0.69 0.56 1.12 0.39 0.29 0.16 0.21 0.3 2.030.28 0.18 0.51 0.32 0.26 0.07 0.4 0.54 0.37 0.28 0.93 0.46 0.49 0.16 0.63 0.37 0.37NOTE. Incidence = no. of each cases 4 population of each age group. All patients registered in the Antiviral Drug Surveillance System (ADSS) were confirmed or suspected to have the infection. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047634.t{patients. ORs increased with disease severity in the multivariate analyses (Table 3). The average age of the outpatients was 19.8 yr (616.9 yr) and the median was 14 yr (range, 0?02 yr). The mean and median ages increased to 51.6 (628.5 yr) and 62 yr (range, 0?96 yr), respectively, for those in the ICU. Compared to those aged 30?9 yr, those 60 yr were significantly more likely to have a severe outcome (ICU; OR, 30.988; 95 CI, 22.594?2.501). The proportion of NHI beneficiaries was 96.68 for outpatients, but this value decreased to 94.77 and 89.12 for general and ICU admissions, respectively. NHI beneficiaries were less likely to experience severe illness than patients in the Medical Aid program (ICU; OR, 0.460; 95 CI, 0.387?.548). Underlying disease was associated with an increased risk of severe outcome. The OR was 1.280 (95 CI, 1.263?.297) for inpatients and 2.065 (95 CI, 1.829?.332) for those admitted to the ICU. Confirmation rates differed by age group in a subset of labconfirmed cases. The majority (75.22 ) of confirmed patients was , 20 yr, and the confirmation rates were high in school-aged individuals, with the highest at 30.24/100 cases for those aged 10?19 yr. Only 3.89 of confirmed cases were elderly ( 60 yr), and their confirmation rate was the lowest at 8.63/100 cases. Analyses restricted to lab-confirmed cases showed similar results, with the ORs of those 60 yr higher than those of the younger groups, but the magnitude of the ORs was reduced compared with ORs in all cases (Table 4).Likelihood of DeathAlthough the incidence and admission rate for influenza A (H1N1) were higher in younger individuals, the proportions of inpatients and those admitted to the ICU among antiviral drug users were higher in the elderly ( 60 yr) (Fig. 2C, 2D) and the mortality rate for those 60 yr was noticeably higher than that in other groups. The death rate significantly differed by the time the prescription was filled with 0.01/100 for outpatients and 0.23 and 5.23/100 for admission and ICU, respectively. Because the stage that the drugs were used influenced mortality, we adjusted the ORs for death including the variable for the time of filling the prescription. Compared to those aged 30?9 yr, those 60 yrPLOS ONE | www.plosone.org2009 Novel Influenza in KoreaTable 3. Multivariate factors associated with a severe outcome in relation to a nonsevere outcome among all antiviral drug users.Characteristics Female sex Age (yrs)(Mean, Median) 0? 5? 10?9 20?9 30?9 40?9 50?9 60+ Health benefit, Insurance Region, Province 1 underlying disease{ Lung disease Cardiovascular disease Diabetes mellitus Kidney disease Liver disease Malignancy Immune suppression othersOutpatients No.( ) n = 2709611 1351062 (49.86) (19.8616.9, 14) 386140(14.25) 522150(19.27) 846901(31.26) 296259(10.93) 273967(10.11) 180175(6.65) 107784(3.98) 96235(3.55) 2627703(96.68) 1495874(55.21) n = 713383(26.33) 498284(59.87) 57398(6.90) 55435(6.66) 20996(2.52) 97918(11.76.