Converges with the evidence that this area is critical for the

Converges with the evidence that this area is critical for the experience of pro-social sentiments (Moll et al., 2008) and fits with the extant research demonstrating a strong association between the subjective value of reward and vmPFC activity (Hare et al., 2010). Because our moral scenarios were matched for emotional engagement, it seems unlikely that the vmPFC is only coding for the emotional component of the moral challenge. We speculated that when presented with an easy moral dilemma, the vmPFC may also be coding for both the subjective reward value and the pro-social nature of making a decision which produces a highly positive outcome. Interestingly, when a moral dilemma is relatively more difficult, less activation within the vmPFC was observed. The nature of these more difficult moral scenarios is that there is no salient or motivationally compelling `correct’ choice. The options available to subjects elicit no explicit morally guided choice and are instead unpleasant and often even aversive (indicated by subjects’ discomfort ratings). As a result, subjects understandably appear to be more reflective in their decision making, employing effortful deliberation (longer response latencies) during which they may be creating extended mental simulations of each available option (Evans, 2008). Thus, if the vmPFC is specifically coding the obvious and easy pro-social choice, then it is reasonable to assume that when there is no clear morally guided option, the vmPFC is relatively disengaged. This may be due to simple efficiencysuppression of activity in one region facilitates activity in another region. For example, any activity in the vmPFC might represent a Enasidenib web misleading signal that there is a pro-social choice when there is not. In fact, patients with vmPFC lesions lack the requisite engagement of this region, and as a result, show behavioral abnormalities when presented with high-conflict moral dilemmas (Koenigs et al., 2007). In contrast to easy moral dilemmas, difficult moral dilemmas showed relatively increased activity in the TPJ, extending downSCAN (2014)O. FeldmanHall et al.Fig. 4 (a) Whole-brain images for the contrast Difficult Moral > Easy Moral scenarios. Bilateral TPJ regions were activated and a priori ROIs were applied to these areas. Parameter estimates of the beta values indicate that the TPJ regions activate significantly more for Difficult Moral decisions than for Easy Moral decisions (b) Whole-brain images for the contrast Easy Moral > Difficult Moral scenarios reveal significant dACC and OFC activation. A priori ROIs were applied and parameter estimates of the beta values revealed that the dACC and OFC activate significantly more for Easy Moral decisions than for Difficult Moral decisions.Table 10 Difficult Moral > Easy Moral (DM > EM)Region Right TPJ Left TPJ Right temporal pole A priori ROIsaTable 11 Easy Moral > Difficult Moral (EM > DM)z-value 14 18 ?8 3.55 3.26 3.26 t-statistic A priori ROIs MNI coordinates 0 ?8 34 49 26 7 t-statistic 3.24 3.59 Region Left OFC Right OFC Left superior frontal gyrus MCC Peak MNI coordinates ?4 30 ?0 ? 50 62 54 24 ?0 ? 6 38 z-value 3.75 3.00 3.47 3.Peak MNI coordinates 62 ?8 56 MNI coordinates 54 ?6 ?2 ?2 16 25 ?4 ?0Right TPJ a Left TPJ3.63 3.a aACC BLU-554 dose Middle frontal gyrusROIs, regions of interest corrected at P < 0.05 FWE using a priori independent coordinates from previous studies: aYoung and Saxe (2009). See footnote of Table 1 for more information.ROIs, regions of interest correc.Converges with the evidence that this area is critical for the experience of pro-social sentiments (Moll et al., 2008) and fits with the extant research demonstrating a strong association between the subjective value of reward and vmPFC activity (Hare et al., 2010). Because our moral scenarios were matched for emotional engagement, it seems unlikely that the vmPFC is only coding for the emotional component of the moral challenge. We speculated that when presented with an easy moral dilemma, the vmPFC may also be coding for both the subjective reward value and the pro-social nature of making a decision which produces a highly positive outcome. Interestingly, when a moral dilemma is relatively more difficult, less activation within the vmPFC was observed. The nature of these more difficult moral scenarios is that there is no salient or motivationally compelling `correct' choice. The options available to subjects elicit no explicit morally guided choice and are instead unpleasant and often even aversive (indicated by subjects' discomfort ratings). As a result, subjects understandably appear to be more reflective in their decision making, employing effortful deliberation (longer response latencies) during which they may be creating extended mental simulations of each available option (Evans, 2008). Thus, if the vmPFC is specifically coding the obvious and easy pro-social choice, then it is reasonable to assume that when there is no clear morally guided option, the vmPFC is relatively disengaged. This may be due to simple efficiencysuppression of activity in one region facilitates activity in another region. For example, any activity in the vmPFC might represent a misleading signal that there is a pro-social choice when there is not. In fact, patients with vmPFC lesions lack the requisite engagement of this region, and as a result, show behavioral abnormalities when presented with high-conflict moral dilemmas (Koenigs et al., 2007). In contrast to easy moral dilemmas, difficult moral dilemmas showed relatively increased activity in the TPJ, extending downSCAN (2014)O. FeldmanHall et al.Fig. 4 (a) Whole-brain images for the contrast Difficult Moral > Easy Moral scenarios. Bilateral TPJ regions were activated and a priori ROIs were applied to these areas. Parameter estimates of the beta values indicate that the TPJ regions activate significantly more for Difficult Moral decisions than for Easy Moral decisions (b) Whole-brain images for the contrast Easy Moral > Difficult Moral scenarios reveal significant dACC and OFC activation. A priori ROIs were applied and parameter estimates of the beta values revealed that the dACC and OFC activate significantly more for Easy Moral decisions than for Difficult Moral decisions.Table 10 Difficult Moral > Easy Moral (DM > EM)Region Right TPJ Left TPJ Right temporal pole A priori ROIsaTable 11 Easy Moral > Difficult Moral (EM > DM)z-value 14 18 ?8 3.55 3.26 3.26 t-statistic A priori ROIs MNI coordinates 0 ?8 34 49 26 7 t-statistic 3.24 3.59 Region Left OFC Right OFC Left superior frontal gyrus MCC Peak MNI coordinates ?4 30 ?0 ? 50 62 54 24 ?0 ? 6 38 z-value 3.75 3.00 3.47 3.Peak MNI coordinates 62 ?8 56 MNI coordinates 54 ?6 ?2 ?2 16 25 ?4 ?0Right TPJ a Left TPJ3.63 3.a aACC Middle frontal gyrusROIs, regions of interest corrected at P < 0.05 FWE using a priori independent coordinates from previous studies: aYoung and Saxe (2009). See footnote of Table 1 for more information.ROIs, regions of interest correc.