Ed in final edited form as: Prog Lipid Res. 2016 April ; 62: 1?4. doi

Ed in final edited form as: Prog Lipid Res. 2016 April ; 62: 1?4. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2015.12.004.Pan-RAS-IN-1 price (R)-K-13675 web Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptRecent progress on lipid lateral heterogeneity in plasma membranes: from rafts to submicrometric domainsM anie Carquin1,*, Ludovic D’Auria2,*, H e Pollet1, Ernesto R. Bongarzone2, and Donatienne TytecaCELL Unit, de Duve Institute Universit?Catholique de Louvain. UCL B1.75.05, Avenue Hippocrate, 75, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.The Myelin Regeneration Group at the Dept. Anatomy Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago. 808 S. Wood St. MC512. Chicago, IL. 60612. USA.AbstractThe concept of transient nanometric domains known as lipid rafts has brought interest to reassess the validity of the Singer-Nicholson model of a fluid bilayer for cell membranes. However, this new view is still insufficient to explain the cellular control of surface lipid diversity or membrane deformability. During the past decade, the hypothesis that some lipids form large (submicrometric/ mesoscale vs nanometric rafts) and stable (> min vs sec) membrane domains has emerged, largely based on indirect methods. Morphological evidence for stable submicrometric lipid domains, wellaccepted for artificial and highly specialized biological membranes, was further reported for a variety of living cells from prokaryotes to yeast and mammalian cells. However, results remained questioned based on limitations of available fluorescent tools, use of poor lipid fixatives, and imaging artifacts due to non-resolved membrane projections. In this review, we will discuss recent evidence generated using powerful and innovative approaches such as lipid-specific toxin fragments that support the existence of submicrometric domains. We will integrate documented mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of these domains, and provide a perspective on their relevance on membrane deformability and regulation of membrane protein distribution.Keywords lipid domains; lipid probes; toxin fragments; living cells; membrane lipid composition; membrane deformabilityCorresponding author: Donatienne Tyteca, CELL Unit, de Duve Institute Universit?Catholique de Louvain, UCL B1.75.05, Avenue Hippocrate, 75, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium. Phone: +32-2-764.75.91; Fax: +32-2-764.75.43; [email protected] *Co-first authors Publisher’s Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.Carquin et al.Page1. Introduction: key concepts and significance of lipid lateral heterogeneityEven though the protein/lipid ratio of purified stripped membranes is close to the unity on a mass basis, their huge difference in molecular weight makes 50 lipid molecules per membrane protein a reasonable general estimate, underlining that membrane lipids actually cover most of the plasma membrane (PM) [1, 2]. In addition, combinatorial variations in head-groups and aliphatic tails allow eukaryotic cells to synthesize thousands of different membrane lipids [3] by using 5 of their genes (for a r.Ed in final edited form as: Prog Lipid Res. 2016 April ; 62: 1?4. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2015.12.004.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptRecent progress on lipid lateral heterogeneity in plasma membranes: from rafts to submicrometric domainsM anie Carquin1,*, Ludovic D’Auria2,*, H e Pollet1, Ernesto R. Bongarzone2, and Donatienne TytecaCELL Unit, de Duve Institute Universit?Catholique de Louvain. UCL B1.75.05, Avenue Hippocrate, 75, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.The Myelin Regeneration Group at the Dept. Anatomy Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago. 808 S. Wood St. MC512. Chicago, IL. 60612. USA.AbstractThe concept of transient nanometric domains known as lipid rafts has brought interest to reassess the validity of the Singer-Nicholson model of a fluid bilayer for cell membranes. However, this new view is still insufficient to explain the cellular control of surface lipid diversity or membrane deformability. During the past decade, the hypothesis that some lipids form large (submicrometric/ mesoscale vs nanometric rafts) and stable (> min vs sec) membrane domains has emerged, largely based on indirect methods. Morphological evidence for stable submicrometric lipid domains, wellaccepted for artificial and highly specialized biological membranes, was further reported for a variety of living cells from prokaryotes to yeast and mammalian cells. However, results remained questioned based on limitations of available fluorescent tools, use of poor lipid fixatives, and imaging artifacts due to non-resolved membrane projections. In this review, we will discuss recent evidence generated using powerful and innovative approaches such as lipid-specific toxin fragments that support the existence of submicrometric domains. We will integrate documented mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of these domains, and provide a perspective on their relevance on membrane deformability and regulation of membrane protein distribution.Keywords lipid domains; lipid probes; toxin fragments; living cells; membrane lipid composition; membrane deformabilityCorresponding author: Donatienne Tyteca, CELL Unit, de Duve Institute Universit?Catholique de Louvain, UCL B1.75.05, Avenue Hippocrate, 75, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium. Phone: +32-2-764.75.91; Fax: +32-2-764.75.43; [email protected] *Co-first authors Publisher’s Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.Carquin et al.Page1. Introduction: key concepts and significance of lipid lateral heterogeneityEven though the protein/lipid ratio of purified stripped membranes is close to the unity on a mass basis, their huge difference in molecular weight makes 50 lipid molecules per membrane protein a reasonable general estimate, underlining that membrane lipids actually cover most of the plasma membrane (PM) [1, 2]. In addition, combinatorial variations in head-groups and aliphatic tails allow eukaryotic cells to synthesize thousands of different membrane lipids [3] by using 5 of their genes (for a r.