Nd with the short inter-spin distances between 96R1s and 143R

Nd with the short inter-spin distances between 96R1s and 143R1s, respectively, as reported earlier27.The BGHs and helix 6 are adsorbed to the membrane surface at shallow depths.To better define how Bak homodimers interact with the membrane, we measured the membrane immersion Stattic site depths of selected residues in BGH and helix 6 using SDSL (Fig. 4a, S5 and S6). Residues Y106 and F117 are located on helix 4 on the hydrophobic surface of BGH (Fig. 4b). Their corresponding R1 sidechains were located at the depths of 17 ?and 12 ?from the membrane surface, respectively (Fig. 4a,b). The immersion depths of 5 residues on the hydrophobic surface such as 130R1, 138R1, 141R1 and 144R1 were 7 ? 9 ? 18 ? 11 ? respectively, indicating that these residues were also located in the hydrocarbon region of the lipid bilayer (Fig. 4a,b). Residue 125R1 located in the first helical turn of 5 helix also had a depth of 7 ? indicating that the N-terminus of 5 was also in contact with the membrane. These results collectively showed that the hydrophobic surface of BGH is in contact with the membrane. In the 5? loop (residues 145-148), residue 147R1 was water-exposed while others such as 145R1 and 148R1 were buried at 15 ?depth from the membrane surface (Fig. 4c), indicating that the loop was partially exposed to water (Fig. 4d; also see Supplementary Information Figure S6b legend). Residues on helix 6 were also interacting with the membrane as summarized in Fig. 4a,c,d. The immersion depths of R1s in helix 6 (residues 149?63) had an oscillating pattern as a function of residue locations (Fig. 4a,c). The depths could be best-fitted with an -helix inserted into the membrane with its helical axis tilted toward the N-terminus at an angle of 30?(Fig. 4a,d, and S6c). The direction of the greatest depth was very close to the radial line for residue 153R1 in the helical wheel diagram for 6 helix (Fig. 4c, dotted vertical arrow). In this state, residues 149R1, 151R1, 152R1, 153R1 and 157R1 were located in the acyl chain region of the lipid bilayer (white region in Fig. 4d) while residues 155R1 and 159R1 were in the head group region (gray region in Fig. 4d) (Also see Fig. 4a). Residues 150R1, 161R1 and 162R1 had immobile EPR lineshapes (Supplementary Information Figure S5d) with small accessibility parameters for oxygen and (Supplementary Information Figure S6), indicating that these residues are either in protein interior or in tertiary contact (Supplementary Information Figure S6b). Noting that helix 6 was a surface-adsorbed helix and that the 5-6 loop was also partially exposed to water, the pattern in the depths of 5 residues could be best explained by a surface-adsorbed helix with its axis tilted toward the C-terminus (Fig. 4d,e). These results, along with the depths of residues in 4 helix (106R1 and 117R1), showed that the BGH and the 6 helices in the Bak homodimer were adsorbed to the membrane surface, consistent with Westphal et al.30.The X-ray PD173074 mechanism of action crystal structure of the mouse BGHs determined here has the characteristic binding pocket formed by helices 2- 5, to which the BH3 domain in the extended 2- 3 helix of its symmetry-related partner is bound25,29 (Fig. 1d ). As a result, a raft-like structure of two-layers of -helices is formed as is also seen in other BGHs formed by human Bak and Bax (Fig. 1e,f ). The surface formed by a pair of 4-5 helices is hydrophobic and curved, suited for interaction with the membrane (Figs 1e and 4). The chemical cross-linking da.Nd with the short inter-spin distances between 96R1s and 143R1s, respectively, as reported earlier27.The BGHs and helix 6 are adsorbed to the membrane surface at shallow depths.To better define how Bak homodimers interact with the membrane, we measured the membrane immersion depths of selected residues in BGH and helix 6 using SDSL (Fig. 4a, S5 and S6). Residues Y106 and F117 are located on helix 4 on the hydrophobic surface of BGH (Fig. 4b). Their corresponding R1 sidechains were located at the depths of 17 ?and 12 ?from the membrane surface, respectively (Fig. 4a,b). The immersion depths of 5 residues on the hydrophobic surface such as 130R1, 138R1, 141R1 and 144R1 were 7 ? 9 ? 18 ? 11 ? respectively, indicating that these residues were also located in the hydrocarbon region of the lipid bilayer (Fig. 4a,b). Residue 125R1 located in the first helical turn of 5 helix also had a depth of 7 ? indicating that the N-terminus of 5 was also in contact with the membrane. These results collectively showed that the hydrophobic surface of BGH is in contact with the membrane. In the 5? loop (residues 145-148), residue 147R1 was water-exposed while others such as 145R1 and 148R1 were buried at 15 ?depth from the membrane surface (Fig. 4c), indicating that the loop was partially exposed to water (Fig. 4d; also see Supplementary Information Figure S6b legend). Residues on helix 6 were also interacting with the membrane as summarized in Fig. 4a,c,d. The immersion depths of R1s in helix 6 (residues 149?63) had an oscillating pattern as a function of residue locations (Fig. 4a,c). The depths could be best-fitted with an -helix inserted into the membrane with its helical axis tilted toward the N-terminus at an angle of 30?(Fig. 4a,d, and S6c). The direction of the greatest depth was very close to the radial line for residue 153R1 in the helical wheel diagram for 6 helix (Fig. 4c, dotted vertical arrow). In this state, residues 149R1, 151R1, 152R1, 153R1 and 157R1 were located in the acyl chain region of the lipid bilayer (white region in Fig. 4d) while residues 155R1 and 159R1 were in the head group region (gray region in Fig. 4d) (Also see Fig. 4a). Residues 150R1, 161R1 and 162R1 had immobile EPR lineshapes (Supplementary Information Figure S5d) with small accessibility parameters for oxygen and (Supplementary Information Figure S6), indicating that these residues are either in protein interior or in tertiary contact (Supplementary Information Figure S6b). Noting that helix 6 was a surface-adsorbed helix and that the 5-6 loop was also partially exposed to water, the pattern in the depths of 5 residues could be best explained by a surface-adsorbed helix with its axis tilted toward the C-terminus (Fig. 4d,e). These results, along with the depths of residues in 4 helix (106R1 and 117R1), showed that the BGH and the 6 helices in the Bak homodimer were adsorbed to the membrane surface, consistent with Westphal et al.30.The X-ray crystal structure of the mouse BGHs determined here has the characteristic binding pocket formed by helices 2- 5, to which the BH3 domain in the extended 2- 3 helix of its symmetry-related partner is bound25,29 (Fig. 1d ). As a result, a raft-like structure of two-layers of -helices is formed as is also seen in other BGHs formed by human Bak and Bax (Fig. 1e,f ). The surface formed by a pair of 4-5 helices is hydrophobic and curved, suited for interaction with the membrane (Figs 1e and 4). The chemical cross-linking da.