Inical Anxiety Rating Scale Clinical anxiety rating scale was used as

Inical Anxiety Rating Scale Clinical anxiety rating scale was used as a behavioral Hexanoyl-Tyr-Ile-Ahx-NH2 side effects assessment scale of anxiety. Since a 6-point rating scale was used, the scores ranged from 0 to 5 (Table 1).15 3. Child’s Behavior The child’s behavior during treatment was assessed according to the Frankl behavior scale, which divides observed behavior into 4 categories: definitely positive, positive, negative, and definitely negative.16 Procedure Informed parent’s consent was obtained and the selfconcept test of MK-886 biological activity children was conducted by one of the authors. The test administrator explained the children how to complete the questionnaire. All the children were asked to choose a picture that describes him/her after telling a short story about each picture. Then restoration of decayed mandibular primary molar of all the subjects was carried out by one pedodontist. All children were treated at the same specific decorated room for children dental treatment. After application of a topical anesthetic agent for 3 minutes, inferior alveolar nerve block was administered. A class II cavity was prepared using a high-speed handpiece and an amalgam filling was done. The average duration of treatment session time was 28 ?5 minutes for each child. Child’s behavior and anxiety during dental treatment were assessed according to the Frankl Scale and clinical anxiety rating scale, respectively. Two different pedodontists blind to the result of self-concept test accomplished the each abovementioned assay. Data Analysis Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to anaTable 1. Anxiety rating scale0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.lyze the correlation between the scores of three scales. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill., USA). Results Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis revealed that there was a significant moderate inverse correlation between self-concept scores and anxiety (r = -0.545, P < 0.001), which means that an increase in self-concept can result a decrease in anxiety and vice versa. We also found a significant moderate relation associated with Frankl Scale score and self-concept score (r = 0.491, P < 0.001). Indeed, children with higher self-concept had better cooperation with higher Frankl Scale scores. A significant strong inverse relation was found between anxiety scores and behavior in Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis (r = -0.91, P < 0.001), which means increase in anxiety can reduce the child's cooperation during dental procedures. Multivariate Regression Analysis A regression analysis was conducted to determine the relative importance of self-concept for predicting the anxiety and Frankl scores. Table 2 and 3 summarize the results of the regression analysis. Selfconcept scores were found to be significant predictors of the child's behavior according to Frankl Scale (r2 = 0.285) and anxiety score on the clinical anxiety rating scale (r2 = 0.304) during dental treatment. An increase in self-concept score was associated with decreased anxiety level ( = -0.552) and improved child's behavior during dental treatment ( = 0.508). Discussion The present study evaluated the effect of selfconcept on children's behavior and anxiety during dental treatment. The results showed that children with higher self-concept scores may be less affected by stress, exhibiting positive interactions and betterRelaxed, smiling, willing and able to converse Uneasy, concerned; during stressful procedure may protes.Inical Anxiety Rating Scale Clinical anxiety rating scale was used as a behavioral assessment scale of anxiety. Since a 6-point rating scale was used, the scores ranged from 0 to 5 (Table 1).15 3. Child's Behavior The child's behavior during treatment was assessed according to the Frankl behavior scale, which divides observed behavior into 4 categories: definitely positive, positive, negative, and definitely negative.16 Procedure Informed parent's consent was obtained and the selfconcept test of children was conducted by one of the authors. The test administrator explained the children how to complete the questionnaire. All the children were asked to choose a picture that describes him/her after telling a short story about each picture. Then restoration of decayed mandibular primary molar of all the subjects was carried out by one pedodontist. All children were treated at the same specific decorated room for children dental treatment. After application of a topical anesthetic agent for 3 minutes, inferior alveolar nerve block was administered. A class II cavity was prepared using a high-speed handpiece and an amalgam filling was done. The average duration of treatment session time was 28 ?5 minutes for each child. Child's behavior and anxiety during dental treatment were assessed according to the Frankl Scale and clinical anxiety rating scale, respectively. Two different pedodontists blind to the result of self-concept test accomplished the each abovementioned assay. Data Analysis Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to anaTable 1. Anxiety rating scale0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.lyze the correlation between the scores of three scales. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill., USA). Results Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis revealed that there was a significant moderate inverse correlation between self-concept scores and anxiety (r = -0.545, P < 0.001), which means that an increase in self-concept can result a decrease in anxiety and vice versa. We also found a significant moderate relation associated with Frankl Scale score and self-concept score (r = 0.491, P < 0.001). Indeed, children with higher self-concept had better cooperation with higher Frankl Scale scores. A significant strong inverse relation was found between anxiety scores and behavior in Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis (r = -0.91, P < 0.001), which means increase in anxiety can reduce the child's cooperation during dental procedures. Multivariate Regression Analysis A regression analysis was conducted to determine the relative importance of self-concept for predicting the anxiety and Frankl scores. Table 2 and 3 summarize the results of the regression analysis. Selfconcept scores were found to be significant predictors of the child's behavior according to Frankl Scale (r2 = 0.285) and anxiety score on the clinical anxiety rating scale (r2 = 0.304) during dental treatment. An increase in self-concept score was associated with decreased anxiety level ( = -0.552) and improved child's behavior during dental treatment ( = 0.508). Discussion The present study evaluated the effect of selfconcept on children's behavior and anxiety during dental treatment. The results showed that children with higher self-concept scores may be less affected by stress, exhibiting positive interactions and betterRelaxed, smiling, willing and able to converse Uneasy, concerned; during stressful procedure may protes.