Between 18 and 30 months), children have developed their categorical self, which is

Between 18 and 30 months), children have developed their categorical self, which is a concrete way of viewing themselves in “this or that” label. Young children can also describe their self-concept in simple emotional and attitude descriptions when is asked for it. Early self-concepts are based on easily-defined and -observed variables. Both internal and external variables can affect young children’s self-concept with the emotional development. For example, child’s temperament can affect how they view themselves and their ability to successfully complete tasks. Children with better frustrations and challenges coping capability are more likely to think of themselves as successful, valuable, and good. On the whole, self-concept is the effectiveness in the individual’s behavior, cognition, emotions, academic achievement, happiness, anxiety, social integration, and satisfaction with life.12,13 To the best of our knowledge, there is no study toevaluate the impact of self-concept on children’s Acadesine biological activity behavior and anxiety during dental treatment. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the relation of self-concept with child anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and Methods This study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected between July and November 2012. Study Population A total of 235 healthy children (119 boys and 116 girls) aged 4 to 6 years old (mean age of 5.4) were included in this study. Children were selected from new patients referred to the department of pediatric dentistry for routine dental treatments. A comprehensive medical and dental history was taken and a treatment plan was established for each patient. The selected children were in complete physical and mental health with no confounding medical history. Inclusion Criteria First attendance to a dental setting No history of post-traumatic stress No history of unpleasant experiences in medical settings Having at least one decayed mandibular primary molar requiring injection for restorative treatment Assessment Scales 1. Primary Self-concept Scale The Primary Self-Concept Scale14 is composed of 24 items. Each item depicts at least one child in a positive role and at least one child in a negative role. Before treatment, a simple descriptive story about each illustration was told to the each child. The child was instructed to draw a circle around the person that was most like him/or her. The test was designed to measure the following eight aspects or factors of selfconcept: 1) Peer aggressiveness/cooperation, 2) Peer ostracism/acceptance, 3) Intellectual Olumacostat glasaretil custom synthesis self-image, 4) Helpfulness, 5) Physiological self, 6) Adult acceptance/rejection, 7) Emotional self, 7) Success/no success. The reliability of Primary Self-Concept Scale test was moderate to high -according to test manual- and the concurrent and construct validity of the original test have been evaluated previously. The test was scored to yield a total self-concept score. Content and construct validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by 5 faculty members of pediatric deJODDD, Vol. 9, No. 3 SummerErfanparast et al.partment of dental school (pediatric dental specialists), 2 psychiatrists, and 2 statistics specialists. The reliability was determined through a pilot study involving 20 children attending pediatric ward using Cronbach’s alpha test. Cronbach’s alpha for the questionnaire was calculated 0.87. 2. Cl.Between 18 and 30 months), children have developed their categorical self, which is a concrete way of viewing themselves in “this or that” label. Young children can also describe their self-concept in simple emotional and attitude descriptions when is asked for it. Early self-concepts are based on easily-defined and -observed variables. Both internal and external variables can affect young children’s self-concept with the emotional development. For example, child’s temperament can affect how they view themselves and their ability to successfully complete tasks. Children with better frustrations and challenges coping capability are more likely to think of themselves as successful, valuable, and good. On the whole, self-concept is the effectiveness in the individual’s behavior, cognition, emotions, academic achievement, happiness, anxiety, social integration, and satisfaction with life.12,13 To the best of our knowledge, there is no study toevaluate the impact of self-concept on children’s behavior and anxiety during dental treatment. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the relation of self-concept with child anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and Methods This study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected between July and November 2012. Study Population A total of 235 healthy children (119 boys and 116 girls) aged 4 to 6 years old (mean age of 5.4) were included in this study. Children were selected from new patients referred to the department of pediatric dentistry for routine dental treatments. A comprehensive medical and dental history was taken and a treatment plan was established for each patient. The selected children were in complete physical and mental health with no confounding medical history. Inclusion Criteria First attendance to a dental setting No history of post-traumatic stress No history of unpleasant experiences in medical settings Having at least one decayed mandibular primary molar requiring injection for restorative treatment Assessment Scales 1. Primary Self-concept Scale The Primary Self-Concept Scale14 is composed of 24 items. Each item depicts at least one child in a positive role and at least one child in a negative role. Before treatment, a simple descriptive story about each illustration was told to the each child. The child was instructed to draw a circle around the person that was most like him/or her. The test was designed to measure the following eight aspects or factors of selfconcept: 1) Peer aggressiveness/cooperation, 2) Peer ostracism/acceptance, 3) Intellectual self-image, 4) Helpfulness, 5) Physiological self, 6) Adult acceptance/rejection, 7) Emotional self, 7) Success/no success. The reliability of Primary Self-Concept Scale test was moderate to high -according to test manual- and the concurrent and construct validity of the original test have been evaluated previously. The test was scored to yield a total self-concept score. Content and construct validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by 5 faculty members of pediatric deJODDD, Vol. 9, No. 3 SummerErfanparast et al.partment of dental school (pediatric dental specialists), 2 psychiatrists, and 2 statistics specialists. The reliability was determined through a pilot study involving 20 children attending pediatric ward using Cronbach’s alpha test. Cronbach’s alpha for the questionnaire was calculated 0.87. 2. Cl.