D overall psychiatric symptoms (32). Results were replicated in a subsequent RCT

D overall psychiatric symptoms (32). Results were replicated in a subsequent RCT, in which women with BPD assigned a waitlist-TAU condition (n = 31) or inpatient DBT (n = 19). The inpatient group made significant gains in frequency of non-suicidal self-injury, depression, anxiety, and social and global functioning, whereas the TAU condition did not demonstrate significant improvements in any symptom domain. Overall, 42 of the inpatient DBT group exhibited clinically significant change, compared to 0 of the TAU group, and gains were maintained one month after treatment. While these findings are promising, there is also evidence that the duration and the extent of its integration into the inpatient program may be critical determinants of its effectiveness. For example, in one study, inget Beclabuvir patients with PDs, including BPD, were randomized to receive either 10 sessions of a nontherapuetic discussion group or a DBT-based skills group (34). Both groups showed similar remission in symptoms, suggesting that the passage of time may account for some of the improvement observed; however, the frequency of acting out actually increased in the DBT group. In sum, findings suggest that inpatient DBT can be effective during longer-term hospitalizations (i.e., 3 months), when a DBT approach is reflected in many facets of treatment, however, it appears to be less helpful when a short-term group format is added to inpatient treatment as usual. Also of note, DBT was initially developed to target parasuicidal behavior among individuals with BPD, the treatment has also been applied for patients with BPD and substance use disorders (35, 36, 37, 38, 39) as well as patients with BPD and bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder (Palmer et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2008). These studies have producedNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptPsychiatr Clin North Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 September 1.Matusiewicz et al.Pagegenerally favorable results for reducing incidence of specific self-damaging behaviors, with mixed findings as to whether treatment gains generalize to all types of impulsive behavior.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptCognitive Behavior TherapyThe Borderline PD Study of Cognitive Therapy (BOSCOT) trial (40) was the first randomized controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional CBT for BPD. BOSCOT examined clinical outcomes in a sample of 106 patients with BPD, who received either TAU (community-based medication management and emergency services; n = 52) or TAU and up to 30 sessions of individual CBT (TAU+CBT; n = 54) over one year (patients attended an average of 16 sessions). The initial sessions of CBT were used for assessment and development of a cognitive case formulation (Davidson, 2007). Later sessions were devoted to cognitive restructuring (e.g., identifying and evaluating negative automatic thoughts and cognitive errors, and modifying dysfunctional schemas and core beliefs) and implementing behavioral change (e.g., decreasing self-defeating behaviors and practicing adaptive responding to problems). Gains were observed in both treatment groups over the course of treatment and at follow-up. Participants in TAU+CBT reported fewer suicide get Peretinoin attempts during the study period than did participants in TAU. At follow-up, the TAU+CBT group also reported less anxiety, lower symptom distress and fewer dysfunctional cognitions. However, the conditions di.D overall psychiatric symptoms (32). Results were replicated in a subsequent RCT, in which women with BPD assigned a waitlist-TAU condition (n = 31) or inpatient DBT (n = 19). The inpatient group made significant gains in frequency of non-suicidal self-injury, depression, anxiety, and social and global functioning, whereas the TAU condition did not demonstrate significant improvements in any symptom domain. Overall, 42 of the inpatient DBT group exhibited clinically significant change, compared to 0 of the TAU group, and gains were maintained one month after treatment. While these findings are promising, there is also evidence that the duration and the extent of its integration into the inpatient program may be critical determinants of its effectiveness. For example, in one study, inpatients with PDs, including BPD, were randomized to receive either 10 sessions of a nontherapuetic discussion group or a DBT-based skills group (34). Both groups showed similar remission in symptoms, suggesting that the passage of time may account for some of the improvement observed; however, the frequency of acting out actually increased in the DBT group. In sum, findings suggest that inpatient DBT can be effective during longer-term hospitalizations (i.e., 3 months), when a DBT approach is reflected in many facets of treatment, however, it appears to be less helpful when a short-term group format is added to inpatient treatment as usual. Also of note, DBT was initially developed to target parasuicidal behavior among individuals with BPD, the treatment has also been applied for patients with BPD and substance use disorders (35, 36, 37, 38, 39) as well as patients with BPD and bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder (Palmer et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2008). These studies have producedNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptPsychiatr Clin North Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 September 1.Matusiewicz et al.Pagegenerally favorable results for reducing incidence of specific self-damaging behaviors, with mixed findings as to whether treatment gains generalize to all types of impulsive behavior.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptCognitive Behavior TherapyThe Borderline PD Study of Cognitive Therapy (BOSCOT) trial (40) was the first randomized controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional CBT for BPD. BOSCOT examined clinical outcomes in a sample of 106 patients with BPD, who received either TAU (community-based medication management and emergency services; n = 52) or TAU and up to 30 sessions of individual CBT (TAU+CBT; n = 54) over one year (patients attended an average of 16 sessions). The initial sessions of CBT were used for assessment and development of a cognitive case formulation (Davidson, 2007). Later sessions were devoted to cognitive restructuring (e.g., identifying and evaluating negative automatic thoughts and cognitive errors, and modifying dysfunctional schemas and core beliefs) and implementing behavioral change (e.g., decreasing self-defeating behaviors and practicing adaptive responding to problems). Gains were observed in both treatment groups over the course of treatment and at follow-up. Participants in TAU+CBT reported fewer suicide attempts during the study period than did participants in TAU. At follow-up, the TAU+CBT group also reported less anxiety, lower symptom distress and fewer dysfunctional cognitions. However, the conditions di.