To family violence Any exposure to community violence Victimisation categories Non

To family violence Any exposure to community violence Victimisation categories Non victims Victims of 1? forms Victims of 4?0 forms Poly-victims of 11?4 forms Poly-victims of 15+ formsa b c dCurrent study sample ( ) 28.3 78.5 63.9 64.8 60.2 26.8 12.3 57.1 75.9 5.7 19.8 45.7 17.2 14.Chinese samplea,c ( )US sampleb,d ( ) 7.9b 71.1b 53.2b14.a a32.1b 27.8b 11.3b 34.6b21.3.2a28.6c 57.4c 14.0c 10.2dPast year experience of a sample of 3,155 students aged 12?8 recruited from schools in Shandong Province, China [28]. Lifetime experience of 1,175 adolescents aged 14?7 in a national sample of 4,549 US children and adolescents aged 0?7 [57]. Lifetime experience of 18,341 students aged 15?7 recruited from schools in Hong Kong and five mainland cities in China [29]. Lifetime experiences of 417 adolescents aged 15?8 in a national sample of 1,467 US children and adolescents aged 2?7 [45].doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125189.tDiscussionThis is the first study in Vietnam to investigate poly-victimisation among adolescents systematically and comprehensively. It has a number of strengths. The sample was recruited from the three major types of academic institutions at high school level in Vietnam. The experiences of students in private schools and centres for continuing education were assessed for the first time in this study. The inclusion of schools and centres in both rural and urban areas allowed examination of potential differences between these two settings. Like other studies conducted in Vietnam [18, 34] or China [28, 29] a very high response rate was achieved. Social and Actinomycin D site cultural factors which include deferential behaviours, respect for academics and few opportunities to participate in research (thus greater interest in participation) might have accounted for this study’s high response rate. Some forms of victimisation which have not been investigated before, including exposure to property victimisation, dating violence and Internet harassment, were examined. The questionnaire underwent a rigorous review process and pilot testing with adolescents in the target group ensuring appropriateness of the language and acceptability of the questionnaire for use among Vietnamese adolescents. A large sample size was obtained, which allowed us to acquire high power in statistical analyses. Overall, several main important findings were revealed from these data. First, we found that poly-victimisation is highly prevalent among high school students in Vietnam. Second, we were able to show that some previously un-investigated forms of victimisation were also common among them. Third, there were subgroups of students who were more vulnerable to polyvictimisation than others. These results thus contribute significantly to the knowledge about exposure to multiple forms of violence and poly-victimisation among adolescents in Vietnam.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125189 May 1,13 /Poly-Victimisation among Vietnamese Adolescents and CorrelatesTable 4. Victimisation characteristics of different demographic groups among 1,606 high school students in Vietnam. Variable Age (Mean ?SD) Gender (n, )b Female Male Religion (n( ))b No religion Buddhism Christianity or Vorapaxar site others Don’t know Number of adverse life events experienced (Mean ?SD) a Experiences a chronic diseases or disability (n( ))b Yes No Socioeconomic status (n( )) b Lowest 25 26?0 51?5 Highest 25 Family circumstances (n( )) b Both parents Only one parent One parent and a stepparent None of parents Mother’s hig.To family violence Any exposure to community violence Victimisation categories Non victims Victims of 1? forms Victims of 4?0 forms Poly-victims of 11?4 forms Poly-victims of 15+ formsa b c dCurrent study sample ( ) 28.3 78.5 63.9 64.8 60.2 26.8 12.3 57.1 75.9 5.7 19.8 45.7 17.2 14.Chinese samplea,c ( )US sampleb,d ( ) 7.9b 71.1b 53.2b14.a a32.1b 27.8b 11.3b 34.6b21.3.2a28.6c 57.4c 14.0c 10.2dPast year experience of a sample of 3,155 students aged 12?8 recruited from schools in Shandong Province, China [28]. Lifetime experience of 1,175 adolescents aged 14?7 in a national sample of 4,549 US children and adolescents aged 0?7 [57]. Lifetime experience of 18,341 students aged 15?7 recruited from schools in Hong Kong and five mainland cities in China [29]. Lifetime experiences of 417 adolescents aged 15?8 in a national sample of 1,467 US children and adolescents aged 2?7 [45].doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125189.tDiscussionThis is the first study in Vietnam to investigate poly-victimisation among adolescents systematically and comprehensively. It has a number of strengths. The sample was recruited from the three major types of academic institutions at high school level in Vietnam. The experiences of students in private schools and centres for continuing education were assessed for the first time in this study. The inclusion of schools and centres in both rural and urban areas allowed examination of potential differences between these two settings. Like other studies conducted in Vietnam [18, 34] or China [28, 29] a very high response rate was achieved. Social and cultural factors which include deferential behaviours, respect for academics and few opportunities to participate in research (thus greater interest in participation) might have accounted for this study’s high response rate. Some forms of victimisation which have not been investigated before, including exposure to property victimisation, dating violence and Internet harassment, were examined. The questionnaire underwent a rigorous review process and pilot testing with adolescents in the target group ensuring appropriateness of the language and acceptability of the questionnaire for use among Vietnamese adolescents. A large sample size was obtained, which allowed us to acquire high power in statistical analyses. Overall, several main important findings were revealed from these data. First, we found that poly-victimisation is highly prevalent among high school students in Vietnam. Second, we were able to show that some previously un-investigated forms of victimisation were also common among them. Third, there were subgroups of students who were more vulnerable to polyvictimisation than others. These results thus contribute significantly to the knowledge about exposure to multiple forms of violence and poly-victimisation among adolescents in Vietnam.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125189 May 1,13 /Poly-Victimisation among Vietnamese Adolescents and CorrelatesTable 4. Victimisation characteristics of different demographic groups among 1,606 high school students in Vietnam. Variable Age (Mean ?SD) Gender (n, )b Female Male Religion (n( ))b No religion Buddhism Christianity or others Don’t know Number of adverse life events experienced (Mean ?SD) a Experiences a chronic diseases or disability (n( ))b Yes No Socioeconomic status (n( )) b Lowest 25 26?0 51?5 Highest 25 Family circumstances (n( )) b Both parents Only one parent One parent and a stepparent None of parents Mother’s hig.