Tion and communication, supports the regulation of affect and emotions, and

Tion and communication, supports the regulation of affect and emotions, and models children’s social relationships with others (Emde, 1992; Stern, 1985). The MICS asks specifically about parents’ socioemotional caregiving in terms of playing with children, singing songs, and taking children with them out of doors. Adults influence the development of child play in many ways: by provisioning the play environment, modeling, engaging children actively and symbolically, responding to children’s overtures, and scaffolding more advanced play. When children play with more mature caregivers, they are furnished with models, stimulants, materials, and opportunities to perform at levels above those they may achieve on their own (Vygotsky, 1978). During such play, children are also guided in the re-creation, expression, and elaboration of symbolic themes (TamisLeMonda, Katz, Bornstein, 2002). Slaughter and Dombrowski (1989, p. 90) opined on anthropological evidence that “children’s social and pretend play appear to be biologically based, sustained as an evolutionary contribution to human psychological growth and development,” but they also observed that social and cultural “factors regulate the amount and type of expression of … play forms.” In some places, as we observed earlier, caregivers eschew play with children, reportedly attach no particular value to play, and do not view play as especially significant in children’s development (Farver, 1993). In other places, however, caregivers consider play with children to be a central element of the parental role and take an active part in child play, although they may emphasize different aspects (Bornstein, Haynes, Pascual, Painter, Galperin, 1999; Haight, Wang, Fung, Willians, Mintz, 1999). Like play, children experience music in a variety of ways: through singing, performing on instruments, listening to performances, and dancing. Singing conveys information and emotion at multiple levels from the topics and words of the song through the rhythm and melody of the music to perquisite emotional connection between partners. Singing is an enjoyable and important social activity throughout the developing world (Huron, 2003; Trehub Trainor, 1998). Singing does not require literacy and appears to be effective in sustaining child attention (Nakata Trehub, 2004). With children’s attention captured, caregivers can use singing to convey emotional information, and singing allows adults and children to synchronize their emotional Luteolin 7-O-��-D-glucoside site states, affording an important social regulatory function (Bergeson Trehub, 1999; Dissanayake, 2000; Nakata Trehub, 2004; Trehub Trainor, 1998). Singing also modulates arousal Caspase-3 Inhibitor custom synthesis reactions considered essential for affect regulation (Thompson, 1994). Maternal sensitivity and child affect regulation play important roles in the development of secure attachment (de l’Etoile, 2006), and singing consolidates this vital feature of the mother hild relationship (Standley Whipple, 2003). The MICS also asks about mothers taking children out of doors versus leaving children alone. Taking young children outside the house or their common enclosure facilitates parent and child sharing sights, sounds, and other events that deepen their mutual relationship. Reciprocally, leaving very young children alone abrogates caregiving responsibilities and communicates a careless attitude that is demeaning and can be frightening to youngNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author.Tion and communication, supports the regulation of affect and emotions, and models children’s social relationships with others (Emde, 1992; Stern, 1985). The MICS asks specifically about parents’ socioemotional caregiving in terms of playing with children, singing songs, and taking children with them out of doors. Adults influence the development of child play in many ways: by provisioning the play environment, modeling, engaging children actively and symbolically, responding to children’s overtures, and scaffolding more advanced play. When children play with more mature caregivers, they are furnished with models, stimulants, materials, and opportunities to perform at levels above those they may achieve on their own (Vygotsky, 1978). During such play, children are also guided in the re-creation, expression, and elaboration of symbolic themes (TamisLeMonda, Katz, Bornstein, 2002). Slaughter and Dombrowski (1989, p. 90) opined on anthropological evidence that “children’s social and pretend play appear to be biologically based, sustained as an evolutionary contribution to human psychological growth and development,” but they also observed that social and cultural “factors regulate the amount and type of expression of … play forms.” In some places, as we observed earlier, caregivers eschew play with children, reportedly attach no particular value to play, and do not view play as especially significant in children’s development (Farver, 1993). In other places, however, caregivers consider play with children to be a central element of the parental role and take an active part in child play, although they may emphasize different aspects (Bornstein, Haynes, Pascual, Painter, Galperin, 1999; Haight, Wang, Fung, Willians, Mintz, 1999). Like play, children experience music in a variety of ways: through singing, performing on instruments, listening to performances, and dancing. Singing conveys information and emotion at multiple levels from the topics and words of the song through the rhythm and melody of the music to perquisite emotional connection between partners. Singing is an enjoyable and important social activity throughout the developing world (Huron, 2003; Trehub Trainor, 1998). Singing does not require literacy and appears to be effective in sustaining child attention (Nakata Trehub, 2004). With children’s attention captured, caregivers can use singing to convey emotional information, and singing allows adults and children to synchronize their emotional states, affording an important social regulatory function (Bergeson Trehub, 1999; Dissanayake, 2000; Nakata Trehub, 2004; Trehub Trainor, 1998). Singing also modulates arousal reactions considered essential for affect regulation (Thompson, 1994). Maternal sensitivity and child affect regulation play important roles in the development of secure attachment (de l’Etoile, 2006), and singing consolidates this vital feature of the mother hild relationship (Standley Whipple, 2003). The MICS also asks about mothers taking children out of doors versus leaving children alone. Taking young children outside the house or their common enclosure facilitates parent and child sharing sights, sounds, and other events that deepen their mutual relationship. Reciprocally, leaving very young children alone abrogates caregiving responsibilities and communicates a careless attitude that is demeaning and can be frightening to youngNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author.