Ruction. An interesting lesson from these efforts to generate enzymes for

Ruction. An interesting lesson from these efforts to generate enzymes for whole new reactions is that conserved residues whose function was highly specific to the chemistry catalyzed by the natural enzyme became particularly important for tuning the new activities. The active site threonine, which normally helps to catalyze O-O bond scission via protonation, and the axialBAY1217389MedChemExpress BAY1217389 NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptCurr Opin Chem Biol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 01.McIntosh et al.Pagecoordinating cysteine, whose importance in oxygenation reactions is profound [12], can both be substituted to greatly increase activity for C-H amination and cyclopropanation (and abolish monooxygenase activity). Many other protein residues contribute to oxygen activation in P450s, and it is likely that at least some can be mutated to further enhance nonnatural reactivity. As observed with natural P450 enzymes, enhancing the reactivity of enzyme-carbenoid and nitrenoid intermediates may facilitate an expanded catalytic scope for these new chemistries.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptConclusionsWhat information can be gleaned from the diverse natural and non-natural chemistry catalyzed by P450 enzymes that might inform other efforts to genetically encode new reactions? As noted above, much of the natural diversity of P450 chemistry is driven by the reactive nature of oxygen activation intermediates. In this vein, it is worth noting that many other natural enzymes are capable of generating highly reactive species, such as other oxygenase enzymes (di-iron monooxygenases, Rieske monooxygenases, etc.), radical SAM enzymes, and adenosylcolbalamin-dependent enzymes, among others [41]. Although they may prove more difficult to engineer than P450s, these enzymes should not be overlooked in the search for new biocatalytic transformations. For recent non-natural P450 chemistry, the reactive intermediates derive from the reaction of enzyme with synthetic reagents. That these reactions do not require the sophisticated P450 catalytic cycle with its well-timed reductions and bond cleavages can be attributed to the activated nature of the reagents, which undergo relatively facile decomposition to yield reactive carbon and nitrogen species. Exploring the reactions of synthetic reagents with natural enzymes has proven fruitful for finding new genetically encoded catalysts in other contexts [42?4] and is likely to bring more synthetic chemistry into biology. While the reactivity of a free prosthetic group is not necessarily predictive of activity within an enzyme, for each reaction type we explored thus far [36?38?40 , free heme was found to give at least some basal activity with most (though not all) substrates under the assay conditions. Thus investigations of metal/cofactor-reagent pairs may yield useful starting points for identifying possible new enzyme reactivities. Of course, what is different from past efforts [34] is the availability of enzyme engineering tools such as directed evolution, which can reliably improve even very low activities, especially when the activities are exhibited by an (evolvable) enzyme rather than some other protein framework. Although non-natural chemistries that rely on synthetic reagents may be challenging to employ within cellular biosynthetic pathways, a great deal of useful biocatalysis is Olumacostat glasaretil site conducted in vitro [45] where access to the synthetic reagen.Ruction. An interesting lesson from these efforts to generate enzymes for whole new reactions is that conserved residues whose function was highly specific to the chemistry catalyzed by the natural enzyme became particularly important for tuning the new activities. The active site threonine, which normally helps to catalyze O-O bond scission via protonation, and the axialNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptCurr Opin Chem Biol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 01.McIntosh et al.Pagecoordinating cysteine, whose importance in oxygenation reactions is profound [12], can both be substituted to greatly increase activity for C-H amination and cyclopropanation (and abolish monooxygenase activity). Many other protein residues contribute to oxygen activation in P450s, and it is likely that at least some can be mutated to further enhance nonnatural reactivity. As observed with natural P450 enzymes, enhancing the reactivity of enzyme-carbenoid and nitrenoid intermediates may facilitate an expanded catalytic scope for these new chemistries.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptConclusionsWhat information can be gleaned from the diverse natural and non-natural chemistry catalyzed by P450 enzymes that might inform other efforts to genetically encode new reactions? As noted above, much of the natural diversity of P450 chemistry is driven by the reactive nature of oxygen activation intermediates. In this vein, it is worth noting that many other natural enzymes are capable of generating highly reactive species, such as other oxygenase enzymes (di-iron monooxygenases, Rieske monooxygenases, etc.), radical SAM enzymes, and adenosylcolbalamin-dependent enzymes, among others [41]. Although they may prove more difficult to engineer than P450s, these enzymes should not be overlooked in the search for new biocatalytic transformations. For recent non-natural P450 chemistry, the reactive intermediates derive from the reaction of enzyme with synthetic reagents. That these reactions do not require the sophisticated P450 catalytic cycle with its well-timed reductions and bond cleavages can be attributed to the activated nature of the reagents, which undergo relatively facile decomposition to yield reactive carbon and nitrogen species. Exploring the reactions of synthetic reagents with natural enzymes has proven fruitful for finding new genetically encoded catalysts in other contexts [42?4] and is likely to bring more synthetic chemistry into biology. While the reactivity of a free prosthetic group is not necessarily predictive of activity within an enzyme, for each reaction type we explored thus far [36?38?40 , free heme was found to give at least some basal activity with most (though not all) substrates under the assay conditions. Thus investigations of metal/cofactor-reagent pairs may yield useful starting points for identifying possible new enzyme reactivities. Of course, what is different from past efforts [34] is the availability of enzyme engineering tools such as directed evolution, which can reliably improve even very low activities, especially when the activities are exhibited by an (evolvable) enzyme rather than some other protein framework. Although non-natural chemistries that rely on synthetic reagents may be challenging to employ within cellular biosynthetic pathways, a great deal of useful biocatalysis is conducted in vitro [45] where access to the synthetic reagen.