Hat the MPEC core genome is larger than expected for a

Hat the MPEC core genome is larger than expected for a similarly sized group of strains drawn at random from phylogroup A (Fig. 4A), while the MPEC pan-genome is much smaller than is typical for phylogroup A (Fig. 4B). On average, sixty-six phylogroup A strains encode a core genome of 3260 genes, whereas MPEC possesses a core genome of 3492 genes. Conversely, the pan-genome of 66 randomly drawn phylogroup A genomes averages at approximately 16349 genes, whereas MPEC lack thousands of genes otherwise found in phylogroup A, with a pan-genome of only 12558 genes. The observation that the MPEC genome is concentrated with an expanded repertoire of core genes is consistent with our hypothesis that MPEC represents a specific pathotype or ecotype within the larger phylogroup A population and are more similar, both at the phylogenetic and gene content levels, than would be expected for a random selection of phylogroup A genomes. These data are suggestive of an active selection process operating in MPEC which purifies bacteria from the population when they lack purchase Doravirine necessary genes. These genes are then reflected in the specific MPEC core genome, ubiquitous in (and presumably necessary for) MPEC, yet presumably dispensable for the survival of other phylogroup A strains in other niches.For our analysis, we set out to detect genes which may be essential for the MPEC lifestyle, yet potentially dispensable for the survival of phylogroup A E. coli in their occupation of other environments. We reasoned that these genes would be represented by a subset of genes within the pan-genome that are found in the core genome of MPEC, yet are not found in the core genome of phylogroup A E. coli in general. To find these genes, first we modelled how the numerical abundance of genes in a population of 533 simulated genomes affected the probability that a gene would be captured in the core genome of sixty-six randomly SIS3 web sampled strains, over 100,000 replications. Since the data in Fig. 2 revealed that the chance of randomly selecting isolates as closely related to each other as MPEC are is 15 in 100,000, we used this as a threshold to determine genes that were statistically unlikely to be captured in the core genome of sixty-six sampled strains. The results of this modelling are shown in Additional Figure S3. This shows that a gene present in 446 or fewer genomes (in a population of 533 strains) can be expected to be captured in the core genome of sixty-six randomly sampled strains less than 15 in 100,000 times. In light of this data, we probed the abundance of the genes in the pan-genome to identify those which were found in the core genome of MPEC, but no more than 446 of all phylogroup A genomes. This resulted in the identification of just nineteen genes, which we propose forms the MPEC-specifying core genome. These nineteen genes cluster into only three loci (Table 1). The identification of nineteen genes clustering into just three loci instigated exploration of these genes. First we explored the distributions which causes these genes, some of which belong in operons alongside other genes, to be identified as MPEC core whilst their neighbours are not. In MG1655, ymdE is annotated as a pseudogene, and appears to be a 388 bp gene foreshortened by an IS3 element inserted on the reverse DNA strand. The ymdE in our pan-genome is the same length as that found in MG1655, indicating that we could not reliably detect a more complete representative of ymdE among sequenced phylog.Hat the MPEC core genome is larger than expected for a similarly sized group of strains drawn at random from phylogroup A (Fig. 4A), while the MPEC pan-genome is much smaller than is typical for phylogroup A (Fig. 4B). On average, sixty-six phylogroup A strains encode a core genome of 3260 genes, whereas MPEC possesses a core genome of 3492 genes. Conversely, the pan-genome of 66 randomly drawn phylogroup A genomes averages at approximately 16349 genes, whereas MPEC lack thousands of genes otherwise found in phylogroup A, with a pan-genome of only 12558 genes. The observation that the MPEC genome is concentrated with an expanded repertoire of core genes is consistent with our hypothesis that MPEC represents a specific pathotype or ecotype within the larger phylogroup A population and are more similar, both at the phylogenetic and gene content levels, than would be expected for a random selection of phylogroup A genomes. These data are suggestive of an active selection process operating in MPEC which purifies bacteria from the population when they lack necessary genes. These genes are then reflected in the specific MPEC core genome, ubiquitous in (and presumably necessary for) MPEC, yet presumably dispensable for the survival of other phylogroup A strains in other niches.For our analysis, we set out to detect genes which may be essential for the MPEC lifestyle, yet potentially dispensable for the survival of phylogroup A E. coli in their occupation of other environments. We reasoned that these genes would be represented by a subset of genes within the pan-genome that are found in the core genome of MPEC, yet are not found in the core genome of phylogroup A E. coli in general. To find these genes, first we modelled how the numerical abundance of genes in a population of 533 simulated genomes affected the probability that a gene would be captured in the core genome of sixty-six randomly sampled strains, over 100,000 replications. Since the data in Fig. 2 revealed that the chance of randomly selecting isolates as closely related to each other as MPEC are is 15 in 100,000, we used this as a threshold to determine genes that were statistically unlikely to be captured in the core genome of sixty-six sampled strains. The results of this modelling are shown in Additional Figure S3. This shows that a gene present in 446 or fewer genomes (in a population of 533 strains) can be expected to be captured in the core genome of sixty-six randomly sampled strains less than 15 in 100,000 times. In light of this data, we probed the abundance of the genes in the pan-genome to identify those which were found in the core genome of MPEC, but no more than 446 of all phylogroup A genomes. This resulted in the identification of just nineteen genes, which we propose forms the MPEC-specifying core genome. These nineteen genes cluster into only three loci (Table 1). The identification of nineteen genes clustering into just three loci instigated exploration of these genes. First we explored the distributions which causes these genes, some of which belong in operons alongside other genes, to be identified as MPEC core whilst their neighbours are not. In MG1655, ymdE is annotated as a pseudogene, and appears to be a 388 bp gene foreshortened by an IS3 element inserted on the reverse DNA strand. The ymdE in our pan-genome is the same length as that found in MG1655, indicating that we could not reliably detect a more complete representative of ymdE among sequenced phylog.