On the power button (even something as irrelevant as a scratch

On the power button (even something as irrelevant as a scratch or bump on the button). As long as that feature is present, there are no negative consequences for the overselective attending. However, if the device is upgraded or returned to the manufacturer temporarily and that irrelevant but overselectively-attended feature is absent on the new or replacement device, functional use could be affected. An individual who previously appeared to demonstrate operational competence might now appear to be floundering, not because she or he forgot how to turn on a device, but because the feature that signaled to that individual where the power button was (the discriminative stimulus) is no longer present. Early Studies of Overselectivity During the early 1960’s, Dr. O. Ivar Lovaas and colleagues were among the first to apply the methods of behavioral psychology to the treatment and education of children diagnosed with autism. The goals of their program were to establish communication and to decrease maladaptive behavior. It is sometimes underappreciated that Lovaas’s initial research interest was in developing better methods for teaching children with language delays, and in the effects that improved communication skills might have on other areas such as social interaction (Smith Eikeseth, 2011). Children with autism were chosen as the study population because of their social and communication deficits. One aspect of these children’s behavior was described as follows: Operationally, our data show that when autistic children are presented with multiple stimulus inputs, their behavior comes under the Olumacostat glasaretil chemical information control of a range of input that is too restricted. This problem was referred to as `stimulus overselectivity’NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAugment Altern Commun. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Dube and WilkinsonPage(Lovaas, Schreibman, Koegel, Rhem, 1971) because the children overselected a limited number of stimuli from those available in their environment (NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptLovaas, Koegel, Schreibman, 1979, p. 1237). The experimental methods used by Lovaas and others most often involved initial training with stimuli that contained multiple elements (for instance, ABC, which contains three different letters) followed by testing with the individual elements (for instance, A alone). The goal was to determine the breadth of learning. Initial training usually offered repeated choices between two multi-element stimuli. For example, a multi-element stimulus ABC might be presented alongside XYZ, with the stimulus ABC designated as the correct choice for all trials (and XYZ always incorrect). After participants reliably selected ABC on every trial, tests presented the various combinations of individual elements, A vs. Y, B vs. X, etc. When given such tests, school-aged children with typical development are highly likely to respond correctly to all combinations of elements, but children with developmental disabilities may respond to only a subset of elements (Wilhelm Lovaas, 1976). These results indicate that the children with developmental disabilities had learned to perform the ABC vs. XYZ task on the basis of only one or two of the stimulus elements (e.g., on the basis of A or B, but not C). Current Definitions of Overselectivity The initial experimental studies that Leupeptin (hemisulfate) web defined the problem of stimulus overselectivity in children wit.On the power button (even something as irrelevant as a scratch or bump on the button). As long as that feature is present, there are no negative consequences for the overselective attending. However, if the device is upgraded or returned to the manufacturer temporarily and that irrelevant but overselectively-attended feature is absent on the new or replacement device, functional use could be affected. An individual who previously appeared to demonstrate operational competence might now appear to be floundering, not because she or he forgot how to turn on a device, but because the feature that signaled to that individual where the power button was (the discriminative stimulus) is no longer present. Early Studies of Overselectivity During the early 1960’s, Dr. O. Ivar Lovaas and colleagues were among the first to apply the methods of behavioral psychology to the treatment and education of children diagnosed with autism. The goals of their program were to establish communication and to decrease maladaptive behavior. It is sometimes underappreciated that Lovaas’s initial research interest was in developing better methods for teaching children with language delays, and in the effects that improved communication skills might have on other areas such as social interaction (Smith Eikeseth, 2011). Children with autism were chosen as the study population because of their social and communication deficits. One aspect of these children’s behavior was described as follows: Operationally, our data show that when autistic children are presented with multiple stimulus inputs, their behavior comes under the control of a range of input that is too restricted. This problem was referred to as `stimulus overselectivity’NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAugment Altern Commun. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Dube and WilkinsonPage(Lovaas, Schreibman, Koegel, Rhem, 1971) because the children overselected a limited number of stimuli from those available in their environment (NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptLovaas, Koegel, Schreibman, 1979, p. 1237). The experimental methods used by Lovaas and others most often involved initial training with stimuli that contained multiple elements (for instance, ABC, which contains three different letters) followed by testing with the individual elements (for instance, A alone). The goal was to determine the breadth of learning. Initial training usually offered repeated choices between two multi-element stimuli. For example, a multi-element stimulus ABC might be presented alongside XYZ, with the stimulus ABC designated as the correct choice for all trials (and XYZ always incorrect). After participants reliably selected ABC on every trial, tests presented the various combinations of individual elements, A vs. Y, B vs. X, etc. When given such tests, school-aged children with typical development are highly likely to respond correctly to all combinations of elements, but children with developmental disabilities may respond to only a subset of elements (Wilhelm Lovaas, 1976). These results indicate that the children with developmental disabilities had learned to perform the ABC vs. XYZ task on the basis of only one or two of the stimulus elements (e.g., on the basis of A or B, but not C). Current Definitions of Overselectivity The initial experimental studies that defined the problem of stimulus overselectivity in children wit.