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R recommendations were routine clinical laboratory tests and referrals to other health care professionals. For a complete list of recommendation codes refer to Fig 2. In general, most participants said they followed the PHC recommendations. However, some reported barriers for not following these recommendations. The identified barriers fell under the patient level and the exo-system level. Patient level barriers for PHC recommendations. Patient level barriers for PHC recommendation adherence were fear or shame about clinical procedures and substance abuse. For example, one male participant was afraid of dental procedures and another female participant felt ashamed about gynecological procedures. Participant 1: “The PAP test is difficult, I feel ashamed. It’s been a lot of years [without performing a PAP smear test] Participant 4: “It’s Serabelisib web difficult [to follow the recommendation referral to] the dentist jasp.12117 because I’m afraid. . .” Exo-system level barrier for PHC recommendations The only exo-system barriers to PHC recommendation adherence were related to transportation limitations. The following quote emphasized the problem. Participant 10: What prevents me from following the [laboratory] tests is the [problem with] transportation. Where I live is not near. . .you have to walk a lot. . .”DiscussionThe purpose of this study was to identify perceived HAART adherence barriers and LLY-507 web facilitators in a sample of HIV patients with a history non-adherent behavior. The study was framed under a social ecological framework; an approach that facilitates the understanding of medication adherence behavior by studying the interaction of socio-ecological systems: individual, micro-system, meso-system, exo-system, macro-system and crono-system [19]. A total of twelve HIV patients (6 women and 6 men) participated in the study providing an interesting range of responses. The social ecological perspective framework was used for the guidedPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125582 September 30,12 /Barriers and Facilitators for HIV Treatment Adherence in Puerto Ricansinterviews and the emergent categories falling under these system level categories: patient level barriers, micro-system level, meso-system level, exo-system level and macro-system level. Table 3 summarizes key findings and implications. Some of the emergent barriers have been widely cited in the literature; among these are medication side effects [22], treatment regimen [23], depression [24], transportation, jir.2013.0113 stigma [25], and drug addiction [26]. Other barriers have been less studied, for example, peer influence, a good or bad health status perception, and illegal medication selling [9]. For example, medication side effects and treatment regimen (e.g. inconvenient scheduling), among other factors, may lead to treatment fatigue and subsequent non-adherence; yet, this phenomenon is not widely addressed [27]. Studies on medication side effects and regimen as proxies for HAART treatment fatigue and adherence, and opportunities for interventions are warranted. Depression is a very common barrier identified in the literature. As such, Gonzalez et. al. conducted a study looking at the psychosocial and cultural factor associated with depression in a sample Hispanic men diagnosed with HIV [28]. The investigators identified several correlates of depression such as stress, self-esteem, substance abuse and physical violence, and recommended further research to determine how interactions of these variables impact me.R recommendations were routine clinical laboratory tests and referrals to other health care professionals. For a complete list of recommendation codes refer to Fig 2. In general, most participants said they followed the PHC recommendations. However, some reported barriers for not following these recommendations. The identified barriers fell under the patient level and the exo-system level. Patient level barriers for PHC recommendations. Patient level barriers for PHC recommendation adherence were fear or shame about clinical procedures and substance abuse. For example, one male participant was afraid of dental procedures and another female participant felt ashamed about gynecological procedures. Participant 1: “The PAP test is difficult, I feel ashamed. It’s been a lot of years [without performing a PAP smear test] Participant 4: “It’s difficult [to follow the recommendation referral to] the dentist jasp.12117 because I’m afraid. . .” Exo-system level barrier for PHC recommendations The only exo-system barriers to PHC recommendation adherence were related to transportation limitations. The following quote emphasized the problem. Participant 10: What prevents me from following the [laboratory] tests is the [problem with] transportation. Where I live is not near. . .you have to walk a lot. . .”DiscussionThe purpose of this study was to identify perceived HAART adherence barriers and facilitators in a sample of HIV patients with a history non-adherent behavior. The study was framed under a social ecological framework; an approach that facilitates the understanding of medication adherence behavior by studying the interaction of socio-ecological systems: individual, micro-system, meso-system, exo-system, macro-system and crono-system [19]. A total of twelve HIV patients (6 women and 6 men) participated in the study providing an interesting range of responses. The social ecological perspective framework was used for the guidedPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125582 September 30,12 /Barriers and Facilitators for HIV Treatment Adherence in Puerto Ricansinterviews and the emergent categories falling under these system level categories: patient level barriers, micro-system level, meso-system level, exo-system level and macro-system level. Table 3 summarizes key findings and implications. Some of the emergent barriers have been widely cited in the literature; among these are medication side effects [22], treatment regimen [23], depression [24], transportation, jir.2013.0113 stigma [25], and drug addiction [26]. Other barriers have been less studied, for example, peer influence, a good or bad health status perception, and illegal medication selling [9]. For example, medication side effects and treatment regimen (e.g. inconvenient scheduling), among other factors, may lead to treatment fatigue and subsequent non-adherence; yet, this phenomenon is not widely addressed [27]. Studies on medication side effects and regimen as proxies for HAART treatment fatigue and adherence, and opportunities for interventions are warranted. Depression is a very common barrier identified in the literature. As such, Gonzalez et. al. conducted a study looking at the psychosocial and cultural factor associated with depression in a sample Hispanic men diagnosed with HIV [28]. The investigators identified several correlates of depression such as stress, self-esteem, substance abuse and physical violence, and recommended further research to determine how interactions of these variables impact me.

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Author: haoyuan2014