Ween fetal growth and maternal levels of vitamins B6, B12, and homocysteine (a marker of

Ween fetal growth and maternal levels of vitamins B6, B12, and homocysteine (a marker of impaired folate status) remain equivocal [7]. Further, data linking maternal micronutrient concentrations to earlylife outcomes are limited [8]. Inadequate maternal 1-CC nutrients have been linked to lower DNA methylation at the agouti locus [9] during critical periods of early embryonic development, and in this model epigenetic programs, the offspring to adult obesity, diabetes, and cancer [10]. The plasticity of the purchase ARA290 epigenome may offer a mechanistic link between maternal nutrition and adult disease [11]. DNA methylation is the most widely studied epigenetic modification and is integral in regulating gene expression [12]. Despite the importance of 1-CC nutrients in DNA methylation, few studies have investigated whether maternal micronutrient concentrations influence offspring DNA methylation patterns [13?5], and most have primarily focused on folate. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal serum concentrations of vitamin B12 (B12), pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), 4-pyridoxic acid (PA), homocysteine (Hcy), and offspring weight at birth through age 3 years in an ethnically diverse population. We further sought to explore the potential effects of maternal micronutrient concentrations on the methylation patterns of genomically imprinted gene differentially methylated regions (DMRs). While there are more than 80 recognized imprinted genes in humans [16], we selected four DMRs (H19, MEG3, SGCE/PEG10, and PLAGL1) known to be important in fetal growth and development [17, 18] and previously associated with maternal B vitamin concentrations in cross-sectional studies [13?5].Associations between maternal micronutrient concentrations (e.g., B12, PLP, PA, and Hcy) and birth weightThe mean birth weight in our study sample was 3294 g (standard deviation = 541 g). Table 2 presents adjusted regression coefficient estimates (s) and standard errors (SE) for the multivariate association between maternal micronutrient concentrations and infant birth weight, as well as sex-specific estimates. All models adjusted for race/ethnicity, gestational age at blood draw and delivery, marital status, parity, income, pre-pregnancy BMI, and maternal smoking. While we observed a monotonic increase in birth weight with increasing PLP and decrease in birth weight with increasing Hcy among all participants, our estimates were imprecise. We found that the inverse association between Hcy and birth weight was most pronounced among male infants. The coefficient estimate among male infants in the highest quartile of maternal Hcy concentration was -210.40 (SE = 102.08, p = 0.04) while the corresponding estimate among female infants was 27.33 (SE = 98.14, p = 0.78). However, the crossproduct term was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). Although we observed striking differences in the association between maternal B6 (PLP and PA) concentration and birth weight in infants born to women who reported FA supplementation (Additional file 1: Table S1), the estimates were imprecise due to the low proportion of nonsupplementing women. These associations did not vary by race/ethnicity or maternal BMI, and exclusion of preterm infants did not substantially alter our findings.Associations between maternal micronutrient concentrations (e.g., B12, PLP, PA, and Hcy) and age 3 weight gainResults The majority of women included in PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27864321 these analyses were aged 20?9 years (56 ), were.