Re 2, orate when the sintering temperature was 1550 . Depending on Figure two, it appears that the it seems that the best piezoelectric properties of Ce0.04 Y0.02 -BCZT ceramics have been when greatest piezoelectric properties of Ce0.04Y0.02-BCZT ceramics have been when the sintering temperthe sintering temperature was about 1500 C. Consequently, Xanthoangelol web determined by this outcome, co-doping ature was around 1500 . Hence, determined by this result, co-doping effects of Ceand Y effects of Ce and Y to BCZT were analyzed in the sintering temperature near 1500 C. to BCZT had been analyzed in the sintering temperature near 1500 .Coatings 2021, 11, x FOR PEER Evaluation Coatings 2021, 11,four 4of 14 ofCe 0.04 wt , Y 0.02 wt doped 0.5BZT-0.5BCT0.700 0.d33 (pC/N)600 500 0.48 400 0.42 300 1450 1500Sintering temperature Figure 2. Sintering temperature dependent piezoelectric charge coefficient of d33 d33 and electroFigure 2. Sintering temperature dependent piezoelectric charge coefficient of and electro-mechanical coupling coefficient of kofofp of0.04Y0.04-(Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.15 )(Zr0.1 Ti0.9 )O3 ceramics. mechanical coupling coefficient p k Ce Ce 0.02 Y0.02 -(Ba0.85 Ca 0.1Ti0.9)O3 ceramics.Figure 3a,b show the X-ray diffraction patterns of Ce0.04Yyydoped BCZT ceramic, and patterns of Ce0.04 Y doped BCZT ceramic, and Figure 3a,b show Cexx Y0.02 doped BCZT ceramics, respectively. Both ceramic specimens had been sintered CeY0.02 doped BCZT ceramics, respectively. Each ceramic specimens had been sintered at 1500 at 1500 C with distinctive 3 contents. As shown As shown in Figure three, all synthesized CeY with various CeO2-Y2OCeO2 -Y2 O3 contents.in Figure three, all synthesized CeY doped BCZT doped BCZT ceramics showed a pure perovskite structure without having any pyrochlore phase. ceramics showed a pure perovskite structure without any pyrochlore phase. This indicates This implies Y3+ Ce4+ and Y3+ cations diffused lattice to type a full strong solution. that Ce4+ andthat cations diffused into the BCZT into the BCZT lattice to type a comprehensive strong remedy. As shown in Figure 3a, of Y2O3 increases, O3 diffraction peaks of CeO2 and As shown in Figure 3a, as the content as the content material of Y2the increases, the diffraction peaks of CeO2 and Y2 O doped BCZT ceramics shift slightly to larger angle. The cause for Y2O3 doped BCZT3ceramics shift slightly to a higher angle.aThe reason for this phenomethis was the tolerance factor and radius and radius matching rule. This can be from the non phenomenon was the tolerance issue matching rule. This could be explained explained from the relational expression [18,19]. followingfollowing relational expression [18,19].RaRa Ro = = 2t Rb + Ro) + + Ro 2t ( (Rb + Ro)Kp0.(1) (1)where Ra is radius of A web page, Rb is radius of B web page, Ro will be the oxygen ion, and t is the tolerwhere Ra is radius of A site, Rb is radius of B web page, Ro may be the oxygen ion, and t is the tolerance ance PTK787 dihydrochloride Apoptosis element . If t = 1, it implies it has a cube structure. Having said that, if t isn’t 1, it means factor . If t = 1, it indicates it features a cube structure. However, if t is not 1, it suggests that it that it includes a particular disordered structure. Because it deviates from 1, the degree of distortion includes a particular disordered structure. Since it deviates from 1, the degree of distortion increases, increases, which has been shown to impact the stability with the ABO3 structure. Generally, it which has been shown to impact the stability of the ABO3 structure. Generally, it is actually reported is reported that, when t 0.8, a stable ABO3 structure is often forme.