Not just aMaterials 2021, 14,3 ofsignificant reduction on the approach energy, but above all acquiring the desired, fine-grained and homogeneous structure, and thus higher functional properties . Technological processes primarily based on the KOBO strategy, in relation to conventional processes, are enriched having a factor that causes cyclical modifications Rigosertib custom synthesis within the deformation path within the deformed material as a result of cyclical changes in its load pattern . In accordance with the patent claims, this element is normally a mechanism that is a supply of more torque, operating within a predetermined plane in a cyclical manner and having a defined frequency. Within the case of your KOBO process, this factor causes permanent destabilization on the metal structure with the domination of localized plastic flow in cyclically intersecting shear bands. In line with the appropriate process accompanying the application with the KOBO technique to plastic operating processes, it is doable to carry out “cold” (i.e., beneath the recrystallization circumstances of a offered material) plastic forming processes using a speed and degree of processing significantly higher than in high-temperature processes, as well as the product obtains a fine-grained, homogeneous structure and favorable mechanical properties . In addition, sustaining a continuous worth with the extrusion force by adjusting the oscillation frequency on the die and the speed on the punch movement is conducive to obtaining the exact same material properties along the complete length on the sample [34,35]. The KOBO process was applied in the course of investigation on plastic deformation of hard-to-deform materials, which includes: MMC (Metal Matrix Composite), aluminum alloys (7075), titanium, bronze (CuSn8), magnesium alloys (AZ31 (MgAl3Zn1), AZ91 (MgAl9Zn1), AZ61 (MgAl6Zn1)) , and in comparison with the results obtained for typical plastic forming processes, for instance extrusion, pressing, forging, rolling or drawing [39,40]. The KOBO technology was also employed for the direct production of wire (omitting the liquid phase) from aluminum scrap (e.g., from aluminum cans), waste shavings from aluminum and titanium alloys [41,42], and waste from magnesium alloys. It can be well-known that metals and their alloys with a finely divided structure, even as much as the nanometric scale, have superplastic properties [43,44]. The reduction in grain size must result in a reduction inside the optimal temperature for the occurrence of superplasticity or to a rise inside the optimal strain price at which this phenomenon happens. This assumption underlies the design and style of most SPD techniques. Analysis results obtained and described by the teams of Mukherije  and Valiev  had a considerable influence on the course of research on the mechanisms of superplastic flow. In accordance with Mukherijee, superplasticity is often a property of polycrystalline materials that often obtain huge elongations before tensile fracture. In other words, superplasticity defines this phenomenon as the capacity of materials to undergo excellent plastic deformation without having disturbing internal cohesion, appearing at high homologous temperatures beneath the influence of stresses, the magnitude of which can be exceptionally low and strongly dependent around the rate of deformation. Because of stretching, there’s resistance for the formation in the neck or the so-called multi-neck as well as the tendency to enormous, even exceeding 1000 , elongations. As outlined by the theory of AZD1208 web Mukherjee , the superplastic flow of microcrystalline components is often described by.