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Inally, high-resolution sensors are defined as those using a few meters resolution, for example three m or significantly less. IKONOS-2 belongs to this category and can be found in a number of studies of benthic habitat mapping [869], but mainly ahead of 2015, the year it has ceased operating. GaoFen-2 satellite, launched in 2014, has precisely the same spatial and spectral resolution as IKONOS-2, but just isn’t as widely used [90], possibly because of its age: it was launched in 2014, when some sensors already had a far better resolution. GaoFen have diverse satellites (from GaoFen-1 to GaoFen-14) that have exactly the same or a decrease resolution than GaoFen-2. With a equivalent sensor and also a slightly much better resolution than IKONOS-2, the Quickbird-2 satellite delivers images for quite a few studies of reef mapping [58,916]. Please note that the Quickbird-2 plan was stopped in 2015. Similar attributes are proposed by the Pleiades-1 satellites, from the Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation plan, also present within the literature [97,98]. An even larger accuracy may be located with GeoEye-1 satellite,Remote Sens. 2021, 13,six ofproviding pictures at a resolution of significantly less than 1m, making it especially valuable to study coral reefs [99]. Essentially the most prevalent and most precise satellite images come from WorldView satellites. For instance, WorldView-2 (WV-2), launched in 2009, has been extensively applied for benthic habitat mapping and coastline extraction [40,76,90,10007]. Despite the high-resolution photos offered by WV-2, the highest high-quality photos obtainable in the present time come from WorldView-3 (WV-3), launched in 2014 [39,10810]. WV-3 features a total of 16 spectral bands and is hence able to compete with hyperspectral sensors with more than a hundred bands (including Hyperion). Additionally, its spatial resolution will be the highest available among present satellites, and is even equivalent to nearby measurement procedures like Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV) [111]. ML-SA1 In Vivo amongst all of the spectral bands provided by the WV-3 sensors, the coastal blue band (40050 nm) is in particular helpful for bathymetry, as this wavelength penetrates water a lot more quickly and may well aid to discriminate seagrass patterns [112]. Despite the fact that the raw SWIR resolution is lower than the one accomplished in visible and near-infrared bands, it might be further processed to produce high-resolution SWIR photos [113]. Furthermore, the WV-3 panchromatic resolution is 0.3 m, which virtually reaches the standard size of coral reef elements (0.25 m), hence creating in addition, it helpful for reef monitoring [114]. To additional evaluate the significance of every single satellite inside the worldwide literature (not only on coral studies) and to detect trends in their use, we searched in Scopus and analyzed the GS-626510 Autophagy amount of articles in which they seem involving 2010 and 2020. Several trends might be noticed. Initially, among low-resolution satellites, it seems that when the usage of Landsat remains stable over the year, the usage of Sentinel has exploded (by a multiplication factor of 20 amongst the period 2014014 and 2018020). Relating to high-resolution satellites, we detect trends in their usage: within the period 2010014, Quickbird and IKONOS satellites had been predominant, but their usage decreased by greater than 85 throughout the years 2018020. However, the amount of papers published applying WorldView and PlanetScope has been growing: respectively from 108 and 0 in 2010014, to 271 and 164 in 2018020. The total numbers for every single satellite might be identified in Figure A1. Figure 3 depicts which satellites have been employed in th.

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Author: haoyuan2014