Ramuscular transplantation of MSCs or exosomes in mdx mice resulted in decreased creatine kinase level, decreased inflammatory cytokine expression and improved utrophin expression. Also, the Complement Component 1s Proteins Biological Activity PL-MSCs and PL-exosomes substantially decreased the degree of fibrosis in the diaphragm and cardiac muscles as well as the expression of TGF-beta. Imaging analyses applying MSCs or exosomes labeled with fluorescent dyes demonstrated localization and engraftment from the cells and exosomes within the muscle tissues up to 4 weeks post-treatment. Summary/Conclusion: These results demonstrate that PL-MSCs and their secreted exosomes have essential clinical applications in cell therapy of DMD partly by means of the delivery of exosomal miR-29 and targeting of multiples pathways which includes tissue fibrosis, inflammation and utrophin expression Funding: This perform was funded by Israel Science Foundation, Adi, Science in Action and ExoSTem BiotecBackground: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from stem cells (SCs) participate in tissue repair by transferring bioactive cargo. Despite the fact that, EVs from unique SCs were studied, the molecular profile and regenerative capacity of induced pluripotent SCs (iPS)- derived EVs (iPS-EVs) had been not well investigated. The aim was to examine (1) phenotype and molecular content of iPSEVs, (2) their functional impact on mature target cells (cardiac and endothelial cells) in vitro, and (3) regenerative capacity in tissue injury models which includes murine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in vivo; and (4) biological properties of EVs form iPS cells overexpressing procardioand proangiogenic Caspase-4 Proteins medchemexpress miRNAs (miR-1, miR-199a and miR-126). Techniques: iPS cells had been cultured in serum- and feeder-free conditions. miRNAs have been overexpressed by lentiviral transduction. iPS-EVs were harvested from conditioned media by sequential centrifugation which includes ultracentrifugation (one hundred,000g). iPS-EV morphology and size were examined by AFM, NTA (Nanosight) and DLS (Izon), the antigen presence- by high-sensitivity FC (Apogee M-50) and WB, the mRNAs/miRNAs content- by real-time RT-PCR, the global proteom -by mass spectrometry. Functional assays in target cells after iPS-EV therapy in vitro include things like: proliferation, migration, differentiation, metabolic activity and cell viability analyses. Regenerative prospective of iPS-EVs was examined in murine AMI model in vivo. Benefits: We confirmed that iPS-EVs (1) include iPS and exosomal markers; (two) are enriched in mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins from iPS cells regulating e.g. cell proliferation and differentiation; (3) transfer the cargo to target cells impacting on their functions in vitro; (four) exhibit regenerative potential by improving heart function right after iPS-EV injection (at 35d). Importantly, no teratoma formation was identified in iPS-EVtreated animals. Summary/Conclusion: We showed that iPS-EVs: (1) carry and transfer bioactive content material of iPS cells to heart cells enhancing their functions in vitro; (two) may be enriched by genetic modifications of parental iPS cells, which enforce their activity; (3) enhance heart repair in vivo. We conclude that iPS-EVs may perhaps represent new secure therapeutic tool in tissue regepair, option to whole iPS cells. Funding: This study was supported by TEAM-2012/9-6 (FNP) to EZS and UMO-2013/10/E/NZ3/00750 (NCN) grants to EZS.OF14.Opioid-mediated extracellular vesicle production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation lead to vascular harm Stephen R. Thom; Veena Bhopale; Kevin Yu; Ming Yang University of Maryland College of Medici.