Tandard error of the imply SFA Saturated fatty acid(s)L. I. E. Couturier and C. A. Rohner contributed equally. L. I. E. Couturier ( ) ?M. B. Bennett College of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia e-mail: [email protected] L. I. E. Couturier ?C. A. Rohner ?A. J. Richardson ?F. R. A. Jaine Climate Adaptation Flagship, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Dutton Park, QLD 4102, Australia C. A. Rohner ?S. J. Pierce ?A. D. Marshall Manta Ray and Whale Shark Analysis Centre, Marine Megafauna Foundation, Praia do Tofo, Inhambane, Mozambique C. A. Rohner ?F. R. A. Jaine ?S. J. Weeks Biophysical Oceanography Group, College of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia A. J. Richardson Centre for Applications in Natural Resource Mathematics, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia S. J. Pierce ?A. D. Marshall Wild Me, Praia do Tofo, Inhambane, Mozambique K. A. Townsend College of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia P. D. Nichols Wealth from Oceans Flagship, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Investigation, Hobart, TAS 7000, AustraliaLipids (2013) 48:1029?Introduction The whale shark Rhincodon typus as well as the reef manta ray Manta alfredi are giant planktivorous CDK6 site elasmobranchs which can be presumed to feed predominantly on aggregations of zooplankton in hugely productive areas [1, 2]. Direct studies around the diet plan of those elasmobranchs are limited to examination of some stomach contents, faecal material and stable isotope analyses [3?], when current field observations recommend that their diets are mostly composed of crustacean zooplankton [1, 7]. It can be unknown, nevertheless, irrespective of whether near-surface zooplankton are a major or only a minor component of their diets, whether or not these huge elasmobranchs target other prey, or no matter if they feed in areas other than surface waters along productive coastlines. Here we employed signature fatty acid (FA) evaluation to assess dietary preferences of R. typus and M. alfredi. The necessary long-chain (CC20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) of fishes are most likely derived directly in the diet, as greater shoppers typically lack the ability to biosynthesise these FA de novo [8, 9]. The fatty acid profile of zooplankton is normally dominated by PUFA using a higher n-3/n-6 ratio, and frequently includes higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) [8, ten, 11]. Contemplating this, it was anticipated that FA profiles of R. typus and M. alfredi tissues will be similarly n-3 PUFA dominated.Materials and Solutions Tissue samples have been collected from reside, unrestrained specimens in southern Mozambique (14 R. typus and 12 M. alfredi) and eastern Australia (9 M. alfredi) utilizing a HIV-1 Formulation modified Hawaiian hand-sling using a fitted biopsy needle tip among June ugust 2011. Biopsies of R. typus had been extracted laterally between the 1st and 2nd dorsal fin and penetrated 20 mm deep in the skin into the underlying connective tissue. Biopsies of M. alfredi were of related size, but were mainly muscle tissue, extracted in the ventro-posterior location with the pectoral fins away in the body cavity. Biopsies had been promptly put on ice within the field and then stored at -20 for as much as 3 months before analysis. Lipids have been extracted overnight applying the modified Bligh and Dyer  technique with a one-phase methanol:chloroform:water (two:1:0.8 by volume) mixture. Phases.